英语六级的阅读高分技巧

时间:2017-10-08 编辑:尚伶 手机版

  如,有一篇短文以这样一句开头:

  Many people believe the glare from snow causes snowblindness.

  Yet…这里根据表示转折的关联词Yet,预测到下面可能出现的是主题句,又必然要否定本句中许多人的观点,即snowblindness(雪盲)可能由glare

  from snow以外的其它原因引起。原文紧接着的是:Yet,dark glasses or not,they find themselves suffering from headaches and watering eyes,and even snowblindness,when exposed to several hours of “snow light”.

  据此主题,我们可以比较有把握地预测到下文将着墨于引起“雪盲”的真正原因,原文如下:

  The United States Army has now determined that glare from snow does not cause snowblindness in troops in a snow-covered country. Rather,a man’s eyes frequently find nothing to focus on in a broad expanse of barren snow-covered terrain. So his gaze continually shifts and jumps back and forth over the entire landscape in search of something to look at. Finding nothing hour after hour,the eyes never stop searching and the eyeballs become sore and the eye muscles ache. Nature offsets this irritation by producing more and more fluid which covers the eyeball. The fluid covers the eyeball in increasing quantity until vision blurs,then is obscured,and the result is total,even though temporary,snowblindness.

  但预测不一定总是正确,它需要在继续阅读中予以肯定、否定或修正。上例中下文的内容与预测相近,表示理解过程正确。如预测与下文不一致,则可能:①对前面内容的理解有偏差;②据以预测的那部分语言信息可能有多种不同理解,因而可据以作出多种不同的预测。

  预测有顺向预测和逆向预测两种,上面提到的为顺向预测。所谓逆向预测,实为预测的一种特殊形式,应用于已知下文要推知上文的场合。阅读中积极运用顺向和逆向预测,除了上面谈到的能提高对文章的理解深度外,还可帮助我们读懂本来难以读懂的章节。

  判断

  在阅读中,我们有时需要对文章内容的正误作出判断,有时需要借助上下文对个别词语的大意作出判断,有时需要根据关联,对上下文进行预测性判断,有时需要 在综合分析的基础上,通过判断得出结论,有时还需要对作者语气态度、思想倾向等等作出判断。判断贯穿于阅读的全过程,也渗透在各种阅读微技能中。例:

  (1) 判断推测句中omnivorous一词的大意

  She has a wide interest and is an omnivorous reader.

  根据句中她“兴趣广”这一上文和被修饰的reader一词,可大概判断omnivorous具有“兴趣广、什么书都喜欢读”等含义。

  (2) 根据前文,判断下文

  Laziness is a sin, everyone knows that. Nevertheless…

  A) laziness can actually be helpful

  B) laziness is a sign of mental illness

  C) laziness is immoral and wasteful

  D) you must be careful when you see someone lazy

  根据第一分句的语义倾向和Nevertheless一词,我们可得出这样的判断,即下文要谈的内容必然与之相反,即谈论Lazinness也有其有利、肯定的一面,故A最有可能。

  (3) 判断作者观点

  Which of the following statements was written by someone who prefers

  small cars to large ones?

  A) Their excellent gas mileage and even their improved interior

  design notwithstanding,today’s compact cars simply fail to provide

  the feel a traditional motorist yearns for.

  B) They lack some of the size and even the character of the

  full-sized autos we were accustomed to; but today’s compacts more

  than make up for this with their excellent gas mileage.

  本题要求我们对A、B中哪种观点赞成小汽车作出判断。A句中主句对小汽车予以否定,句首对小汽车的肯定性陈述又被notwithstanding一词否 定。答案是B,第一分句讲到小汽车的缺陷:缺乏大汽车的空间和气派;第二分句则认为小汽车的紧凑及其优秀的低耗油特征能远远弥补上述不足,前面以转折连词 将作者观点转向第二分句。

  归纳是必须掌握的技能

  归纳

  归纳是一种由特殊(个别)到一般的概括,从阅读理解角度说,所谓个别即具体细节,所谓一般即章节段落的大意或主题,归纳是由特殊细节推向一般主题的概括过程。

  我们可以借助词的上下义关系来领会掌握并运用归纳这一方法。

  (1) 句子的归纳

  A) Microwave ovens have eliminated many of the inconveniences previously associated with the preparation of meals.

  B) Many foods can go directly from the freezer to the microwave oven without being defrosted.

  C) Many microwave ovens can be pre-set to cook food while you are away from the kitchen.

  D) The microwave oven has greatly reduced the amount of time it takes to cook a meal.

  题中四句话都提到微波炉的好处,其中B、C、D

  分别从方便、解冻、定时三个不同的方面具体讲述微波炉不同于传统炊具的优势,而A则从整体上覆盖了上述三句的内容,故A是对B、C、D的概括,上述分析、寻找最具概括意义之选项的过程即为归纳过程。推而广之,我们可用之于段落和短文主题的归纳。

  (2) 段落大意的归纳

  Although most universities in the United States are run on a semester system, which offers classes in the fall and spring, some schools observe a quarter system comprised of fall, winter, spring, and summer quarters. The academic year, September to June, is divided into three quarters of eleven weeks each beginning in September, January, and March, the summer quarter, June to August is composed of shorter sessions of varying length. Students may take advantage of the opportunity to study year around by enrolling in all four quarters, Most students begin their programs inthe fall quarter, but they may enter at the beginning of any of the other

  quarters.

  A) Universities in the United States

  B) The Academic Year

  C) The Quarter System

  D) The Semester System

  本段由四个句子组成,各句大意分别为:1)有些学校实行四学期制;2)学年从9月至下年7月,前三个学期各长11周,夏季学期最短;3)学生可于任何学 期注册入学;4)但大多数学生秋季入学。通过上述四句大意的归纳,可知本段落主要讲述美国大学的一种学期制,即Quarter

  System,答案为C。

  (3) 短文主题的归纳

  ①Proponents of father-attended childbirth assert that the father’s experience encourages him to develop a closer bond with his child…

  ②As a father of three teenagers from a previous marriage, one man compared his past experience as a new father to being in the delivery room during the birth of his newborn daughter…

  ③ Women report that they are much less anxious and more aware of what is going on when their husbands are with them when they give birth…

  A) The Father-Daughter Relationship

  B) Baby’s First View of Life

  C) Dad in the Delivery Room

  文章共三段,分别给出了各段的主题句。第一段谈赞成女子分娩时丈夫陪在其身边的观点并认为这一经历有利于将来父子关系的发展;第二段从男子的角度谈妻子 分娩时陪在其身边的感受;第三段则从女子自身的角度提到分娩时有丈夫在身边会感到踏实、放心。通过对三段主题句的综合概括,全文共同讨论的是:女子分娩时 要不要未来的父亲候在产房,因此答案为C。

  考生需具有一定的推理能力

  推理

  阅读除了需要理解文章的字面语义外,更需要透过字里行间领悟言外之意及作者的语气、态度,这就要求读者具有一定的推理能力。推理的前提就是阅读到的有关文字——可能是短语或句子或整个段落甚至整篇短文。

  读者必须由表及里、由此及彼,从字里行间悟出合乎作者本意的言外之意。推理的结果应是既来自于字里行间、又高于字里行间;既符合原文实际内涵,又超越实际内涵;既基于已知事实,又不仅仅是已知事实。

  正确的推理要求:

  1切忌用自己的观点取代作者原意;

  2客观推测作者立场、观点和写作意图;

  3庇赏一已知事实可推出不止一个正确的结论。

  例:Apart from the obvious fact that rioters tend to come from the less well-off section of the community, there is no evidence that economic circumstances have any causal relationship with street

  violence.

  A) There is some evidence for relating economic circumstances to street violence.

  B) Not all the people in the community referred to are poor.

  C) There is no evidence that economic circumstances result from street viloence.

  D) All rioters come from the poorer section of the community.

  本例中,只有A可由原文推知,其中Apart from所引述的正是经济环境与暴力的一种相关性;C否定了这一相关性,故与原文相悖;D与原句中“rioters tend to come from…”的原意不符:“往往”不等于“总是”;B则是原文第一部分的重述,不属推论。

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