It was January 1848. A man was digging near the small village of San Francisco， California， Suddenly， he saw something shiny—gold.
By the next year the <<<>>> gold rush had begun. Thousands of men came to <<<>>>. They were called “forty-miners” after the year 1849. The forty-miners came from all around the <<<>>>. They even came from other countries， including Mexico， Australia， China， France， and England. They left their families and jobs， and made the difficult trip to California. They all shared a dream. They all wanted to make a fortune in gold.
Towns and camps grew quickly wherever gold was found. These towns were rough places. There was almost always a saloon， where the men drank whiskey and gambled at cards. In mining towns， men stole and sometimes killed for gold.
Did the miners make their fortune? Some did， especially those who came early were lucky. In 1848， miners usually made about twenty dollars a day. In 1852 miners made about six dollars a day. Many other people came to <<<>>> to make money from the miners. Prices were very high. A loaf of bread， which cost five cents in New York， cost almost a dollar in San Francisco.
In 1848 <<<>>> had been a village. Six years later it was a city with a population of 50，000. In 1850 <<<>>> had enough people to become a state.
( )1. In 1849 thousands of men came to <<<>>> because _______.
A. they were forty-miners
B. they wanted to find gold
C. they had families
D. <<<>>> was a beautiful place
( )2. Towns and camps _________.
A. grew quickly
B. grew where there was a saloon
C. grew where there was no gold
D. grew fast wherever there was gold
( )3. Some of the miners who were lucky _________.
A. made twenty dollars
B. made their fortune
C. made bread
D. became poor
( )4. The towns of the old West were rough places ________.
A. where people fought a lot
B. where there are mountains
C. where there is no water
D. with irregular land
Baseball is America‘s most popular sport. In a baseball game there are two teams of nine players. Players must hit ball with a bat and then run around four bases. A player who goes around all the bases scores a run for his team. The team that finishes with more runs wins the game.
Where did baseball come from? No one knows for sure. Many people believe that the idea came from a game played by children in <<<>>>. Other people believe that a man named Abner Doubleday invented the game in Cooperstown， New York， in 1839. But the first real rules of baseball were written in 1845 by Alexander Cartwright. Two teams from New York played a game following Cartwright‘s rules. The rules worked well. Soon there were many teams.
These early teams were not professional. They played only for fun， not money. But baseball was very popular from the start. Businessmen saw that they could make money with professional baseball teams.
The first professional team was started in 1869. This team was the Red Stockings of Cincinati. Within a few years there were professional teams in other cities. In 1876， these teams came together in a league， or group， called the National League. The teams in the National League played one another.
In 1901， a new league， called the American League， was formed. To create some excitement， in 1903， the two leagues decided to have their first-place teams play each other. This event was called the World Series.
Each year since then the National League winner and the American League winner play in the World Series. And， each year， millions of people look forward to this exciting sports event.
( )5. A group of people that play together is _________.
A. a team
B. a league
C. a game
D. a player
( )6. A wooden stick used to hit a ball in baseball is called ________.
A. a ball
B. a sport
C. a bat
D. a stick
( )7. When a player runs around all four bases he makes ________.
A. a four
B. a winner
C. a run
D. a game
( )8. When teams play sports for money they are ________.
Legend tells us that the city of <<<>>> was established in 152 BC. It‘s a fact， however， that by 100 AD， Rome was the center of a vast empire. It ranged from Syria in the east to Spain in the west. It stretched from Britain in the north to Africa in the south. All or part of 27 of today’s countries were included in the Roman Empire. All of their people were ruled by one government， that of Rome. All educated citizens spoke the same language， Latin. And one of the empire‘s many outposts was called Londinium. This unimportant town would later become London， England， and the center of another empire.
The Roman Empire collapsed about 1，5000 years ago. Yet in some ways， it is still with us. Take the letters you are reading fox example. English， like many other languages， uses the Roman alphabet while also borrowing many word. The laws of many European countries are based on ancient Roman laws. Roman ruins are scattered throughout Europe，
North Africa， and the Middle East. In some places， Roman roads and water courses are still in use. To this day， and European in North Africa is likely to be called “Roumi”—Roman. Even modern place names are often inherited from ancient <<<>>>. Both and <<<>>> bear the names given them by the Romans rather than the names that their own people first called them.
( )9. The most northern part of the was _______.
( )10. The main idea of paragraph 2 is that Roman culture is ________.
A. dead and buried
B. based completely on language
C. still part of the present
D. unimportant to history
( )11. In the days of the Empire， the Roman government was probably _______.
( )12. What happened first?
A. Londinium was an outpost
B. The Roman Empire fell apart.
C. The city of <<<>>> was founded.
D. <<<>>> became the center of an empire.
When water is heated until it boils， bubbles of gas appear and rise through the hot liquid. When an electric current passes through water in a process called electrolysis (電解)， bubbles of gas appear and rise through the liquid. Superficially (表面地)， the two events appear same.
If the gas from the boiling water is examined， its properties are found to be the same as those of the water， Thus， if the steam is cooled to room temperature， a liquid is formed which is indistinguishable from the original water. When， however， the gas from the electrolysis equipment is cooled to room temperature， it remains a gas rather than becoming a liquid. Nor will it， at zero degrees centigrade or below， turn to solid， as will the gas from boiling water， These two processes， boiling and electrolysis， have clearly resulted in products with quite different properties.
In boiling， the gas does not represent a new substance， but only a different state of the original substance. Electrolysis， on the other hand， has generated a product which is a new substance， or possibly a mixture of new substances. A change in state as represented by going from a liquid to a gas without the production of new substances in called a “physical change”。 However， when a process takes place that produces new substances， this is called a “chemical change” or a “chemical reaction”。 In a chemical reaction， the initial substances are replaced by a new set of substances or products.
( )13. Which of the following is the best title for this passage?
B. Physical and Chemical Changes
C. Different Types of Water
D. Water Temperatures
( )14. At a temperature slightly above zero degrees centigrade， which of the following is true of gas produced by electrolysis?
A. It does not become liquid.
B. It cannot be distinguished from water.
C. It becomes a solid.
D. It expands greatly.
( )15. The passage is developed in the way of ________.
D. listing examples
1.B 2.D 3.B 4.A .A 6.C 7.C
8.C 9.D 10.C 11.A 12.C 13.B 14.A 15.B