Passage six(Dropouts for Ph. D. s)
Educators are seriously concerned aboutthe high rate of dropouts among the doctor of philosophy candidates and theconsequent loss of talent to a nation in need of Ph. D. s. Some have placed thedropouts loss as high as 50 percent. The extent of the loss was, however,largely a matter of expert guessing. Last week a well-rounded study waspublished. It was published. It was based on 22,000 questionnaires sent toformer graduate students who were enrolled in 24 universities and it seemed toshow many past fears to be groundless.
The dropouts rate was found to be 31per cent, and in most cases the dropouts, while not completing the Ph. D.requirement, went on to productive work. They are not only doing wellfinancially, but, according to the report, are not far below the income levelsof those who went on to complete their doctorates.采集者退散
Discussing the study lastweek, Dr. Tucker said the project was initiated ‘because of the concernfrequently expressed by graduate faculties and administrators that some of theindividuals who dropped out of Ph. D. programs were capable of competing therequirement for the degree. Attrition at the Ph. D. level is also thought to bea waste of precious faculty time and a drain on university resources alreadybeing used to capacity. Some people expressed the opinion that the shortage ofhighly trained specialists and college teachers could be reduced by persuadingthe dropouts to return to graduate schools to complete the Ph. D.’
“Theresults of our research” Dr. Tucker concluded, “did not support theseopinions.”
1. Lack of motivation was the principal reason for droppingout.
2. Most dropouts went as far in their doctoral program as wasconsistent with their levels of ability or their specialities.
3. Mostdropouts are now engaged in work consistent with their education andmotivation.
Nearly 75 per cent of the dropouts said there was no academicreason for their decision, but those who mentioned academic reason cited failureto pass the qualifying examination, uncompleted research and failure to passlanguage exams. Among the single most important personal reasons identified bydropouts for non-completion of their Ph. D. program, lack of finances was markedby 19 per cent.
As an indication of how well the dropouts were doing, a chartshowed 2% in humanities were receiving $ 20,000 and more annually while none ofthe Ph. D. ‘s with that background reached this figure. The Ph. D. ‘s shone inthe $ 7,500 to $ 15,000 bracket with 78% at that level against 50% for thedropouts. This may also be an indication of the fact that top salaries in theacademic fields, where Ph. D. ‘s tend to rise to the highest salaries, are stilllagging behind other fields.
As to the possibility of getting dropouts backon campus, the outlook was glum. The main condition which would have to prevailfor at least 25 % of the dropouts who might consider returning to graduateschool would be to guarantee that they would retain their present level ofincome and in some cases their present job.
1. The author states thatmany educators feel that
[A] steps should be taken to get the dropouts backto campus.
[B] the fropouts should return to a lower quality school tocontinue their study.
[C] the Ph. D. holder is generally a better adjustedperson than the dropout.
[D] The high dropouts rate is largely attributableto the lack of stimulation on the part of faculty members.
2. Research hasshown that
[A] Dropouts are substantially below Ph. D. ‘s in financialattainment.
[B] the incentive factor is a minor one in regard to pursuing Ph.D. studies.
[C] The Ph. D. candidate is likely to change his field ofspecialization if he drops out.
[D] about one-third of those who start Ph. D.work do not complete the work to earn the degree.
3. Meeting foreignlanguage requirements for the Ph. D.
[A] is the most frequent reason fordropping out.
[B] is more difficult for the science candidate than for thehumanities candidate.
[C] is an essential part of many Ph. D.programs.
[D] does not vary in difficulty among universities.
4. Afterreading the article, one would refrain from concluding that
[A] optimismreigns in regard to getting Ph. D. dropouts to return to their pursuit of thedegree.
[B] a Ph. D. dropout, by and large, does not have what it takes tolearn the degree.
[C] colleges and universities employ a substantial numberof Ph. D. dropouts.
[D] Ph. D. ‘s are not earning what they deserve innonacademic positions.
5. It can be inferred that the high rate ofdropouts lies in
[A] salary for Ph. D. too low.
[B] academic requirementtoo high.
[C] salary for dropouts too high.
6.lagging behind other fields 落后于其它领域
1.Educators are seriously concerned about the high rate ofdropouts among the doctor of philosophy candidates and the consequent loss oftalent to a nation in need of Ph. D. s.
2.It was base on 22，000questionnaires sent to former graduate students who wereenrolled in 24 universities and it seemed to show many past fears to begroundless.
3.Attritionat the Ph. D. lever is also thought to be a waste of precious faculty time and adrain on university resources already being used to capacity.
4.This may also be an indication of the fact that top salaries in the academicfields， where Ph. D. ‘s tend to rise to the highest salaries， are still laggingbehind other fields.
5. A. 博士生的工资太低。见第四题A.的译注和难句译注4.