GMAT考试逻辑题的常见错误

时间:2017-01-09 编辑:婉玉 手机版

  做GMAT考试逻辑题,有时候会很容易陷入自己的思维误区里。以下YJBYS小编整理的GMAT逻辑考试的常见错误,希欢迎阅读!

  GMAT逻辑错误之一:相反陷阱。

  这种陷阱是ETS惯用的伎俩,出题者只要花一点点的时间就能提高考试的“质量”。例如:

  1) "All of the following may be inferred from the passage EXCEPT," 然后给你4个选项和一个绝对能从上文推出的选项。有些考生很自然就选择这个绝对正确答案,而忘了”EXCEPT”这个词(如果这个选项是A,相信会有更多 的考生上当)。

  2) GMAT逻辑试题中问题问及推理中的一个假设,却给出一个概括题干的选项。

  3) "Which of the following weakens the argument above," 然后却给出一个绝对能支持(strengthen)的选项

  这些陷阱迷惑的是那些考试粗心的考生。如果你能用这个战术,保持清醒的头脑,仔细认真地阅读选项绕过这些陷阱的话,却可以成为你考试的优势。记住,一旦发现这些陷阱,果断地排除它,即使你找不到满意的选项,也能提高正确的概率。

  GMAT逻辑错误之二: 范围陷阱

  当你必须界定文章的范围时,你就有必要先知道一下我们所指的“范围”。其实,你在总结文章主题的同时也在界定范围。一旦你知道了文章的主题,你也已经界定了文章的主题。比如说,这篇文章到底是在谈graduate school admissions, MBA admissions, 还是谈如何helping international students get into the business school program of their choice? 每一步都是在界定范围

  典型的“垃圾”选项不是范围太宽,太窄就是与文章毫无相关,或者干脆就与正确选项意思完全相反。做题时,你可以寻找那些极端的选项,然后排除它。极端的选项经常包含这样的词:all, always, never, none. 而折衷一点的选项经常是“准正确”选项,包含如usually, sometimes, probably等这样的词。

  这个推论和原文相符,因为它在原文的范围之内。

  一般说来always, never, none等这些词语气太强。在GMAT逻辑考试中,一般不会出现这些极端的语言,也就是说,如果某个选项中包含这些词应该首先排除它。

  而包含如usually, sometimes, probably这些词的选项则更有可能是正确选项。

  练习:

  1.The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two effects that are especially pernicious. First, it often kills off the pests’ natural enemies in the area. Second, it often unintentionally gives rise to insecticide-resistant pests, since those insects that survive a particular insecticide will be the ones most resistant to it, and they are the ones left to breed.

  From the passage above, it can be properly inferred that the effectiveness of the sustained massive use of pesticides can be extended by doing which of the following, assuming that each is a realistic possibility?

  A.using only chemically stable insecticidesB.periodically switching the type of insecticide usedC.gradually increasing the quantity of pesticides usedD.leaving a few fields fallow every yearE. breeding higher-yielding varieties of crop plants

  2.Which of the following, if true, most logically completes the argument below?

  Manufacturers are now required to make all cigarette lighters child-resistant by equipping them with safety levers. But this change is unlikely to result in a significant reduction in the number of fires caused by children playing with lighters, because children given the opportunity can figure out how to work the safety levers and ____.

  A.the addition of the safety levers has made lighters more expensive than they were before the requirement was institutedB. adults are more likely to leave child-resistant lighters than non-child-resistant lighters in places that are accessible to childrenC. many of the fires started by young children are quickly detected and extinguished by their parentsD. unlike child-resistant lighters, lighters that are not child-resistant can be operated by children as young as two years oldE. approximately 5000 fires per year have been attributed to children playing with lighters before the safety levers were required

  3.Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

  A business analysis of the Appenian railroad system divided its long-distance passenger routes into two categories: rural routes and interurban routes. The analysis found that, unlike the interurban routes, few rural routes carried a high enough passenger volume to be profitable. Closing unprofitable rural routes, however, will not necessarily enhance the profitability of the whole system, since ____.

  A. a large part of the passenger volume on interurban routes is accounted for by passengers who begin or end their journeys on rural routesB. within the last two decades several of the least used rural routes have been closed and their passenger services have been replaced by busesC. the rural routes were all originally constructed at least one hundred years ago, whereas some of the interurban routes were constructed recently for new high-speed express trainsD. not all of Appenia’s large cities are equally well served by interurban railroad servicesE. the greatest passenger volume, relative to the routes’ capacity, is not on either category of long-distance routes but is on suburban commuter routes

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