【Corporate social Responsibility】
-a new concept of"market"
Maybe Ben & Jerry's and The Body Shop set themselves up for a fall by appearing to have a monopoly on nuking an honest buck. But their struggles are a lesson on how little we know about the minefield of "ethical" marketing.
The Body Shop, along with the American ice cream maker Ben and Jerry's, was hailed as a new breed of green, or environmentally conscious, business.
Ben and Jerry’s
A Ben & jerry's offers a very sweet benefits package to employees. First, every one of the 700+ Ben & Jerry's workers is entitled to three free pints of ice cream, sorbet or frozen yogurt per day worked. (Some workers even use allotments of their free treats to barter for other goods and services in town such as haircuts). Beyond the freebies,personnel receives a 50% discount on the company's frozen goodies, a 40% discount on merchandise and a further 30% break on non-Ben & Jerry's foods at company outlets.
B Workers are further entitled to be paid family leave and may take advantage of the Employee Stock Purchase Program to purchase company stock (after six months with the organization) at a 15% discount. Beginning in 1998, 316 stock options are awarded to each worker (excluding directors and officers) and stock is also assigned to each employee's 401K plan at the end of the calendar year. These contributions are intended to achieve the company's goal of linked prosperity, i.e. to assure that future prosperity is widely shared by all employees.
C Other benefits include:
Health insurance, including coverage for well baby-care and mammograms
Life insurance (twice the employee's annual salary)
Long-term disability plan paying 60% of salary six months after disability for duration of disability
Short-term disability plan paying 60% of salary for six months
Maternity leave with full pay for six weeks after delivery
The Body Shop
D History of The Body Shop Anita Roddick started The Body Shop with a mere 4,000 and a dream. With over 1,900 stores in 50 countries. The Body Shop was founded in 1976 in Brighton, England. From her original shop, which offered a line of 25 different lotions, creams, and oils, Roddick became the first successful marketer of body care products that combined natural ingredients with ecologically-benign manufacturing processes. Her company's refusal to test products on animals, along with an insistence on nonexploitative labor practices among suppliers around the world, appealed especially to upscale, mainly middleclass women, who were and have continued to be the company's primary market As sales boomed, even the conservative financial markets approved of The Body Shop's impressive profit picture, and a public stock offering in 1984 was successful. An expansion campaign followed. In 1988 the company entered the U.S. market by opening a store in New York City, and by 1997 the company boasted 1,500 stores, including franchises, in 47 countries. Anti-marketing seemed to be smart marketing, at least as far as The Body Shop was concerned.
E Part of the secret of The Body Shop’s early success was that it had created a market niche for itself. The company was not directly competing against the traditional cosmetics companies, which marketed their products as fashion accessories designed to cover up flaws and make women look more like the
fashion models who appeared in their lavish ads. Instead, The Body Shop offered a line of products that promised benefits other than appearance—healthier skin, for instance—rather than simply a better-looking complexion. The company is known for pioneering the natural-ingredient cosmetic market and establishing social responsibility as an integral part of company operations. The Body Shop is known for its ethical stances, such as its monetary donations to the communities in which it operates, and its business partnerships with developing countries. In 1988 Roddick opened her first store in the United States, and by that time—through various social initiatives such as the "Stop the Bum" campaign to save the Brazilian rainforest (the source of many of the company's natural ingredients，and strong support of employee volunteerism——The Body Shop name had become synonymous with social activism and global preservation worldwide. The company had also become immensely profitable.
F By the mid-1990s, however. The Body Shop faced growing competition, forcing it to begin its first major advertising initiative, the most prominent part of which was the “Ruby” campaign. The campaign was personified by Ruby, a doll with Rubenesque proportions who was perched on an antique couch and who looked quite pleased with herself and her plump frame. Randy Williamson, a spokesperson for The Body Shop, said, “Ruby is the fruit of our long-established practice of challenging the way the cosmetic industry talks to women. The Ruby campaign is designed to promote the idea that The Body Shop creates products designed to enhance features, moisturize, cleanse, and polish, not to correct ‘flaws’. The Body Shop philosophy is that there is real beauty in everyone. We are not claiming that our products perform miracles."
G The Competition the Body Shop lost market share in the late 1990’s to product-savvy competitors that offered similar cosmetics at lower prices. The main competitors are H20, Sephora, Bath and Body Works, and Origins. Research Results Research showed that women appreciate The Body Shop for its ethical standards. They are pleased by companies with green actions, not promises. The research proved that The Body Shop has been put on the back burner in many people's minds: overcrowded by newer, fresher Brands Companies like the Body Shop continually hype their products through advertising and marketing, often creating a demand for something where a real need for it does not exist. The message pushed is that the route to happiness is through buying more and more of their products. Under such consumerism, the increasing domination of multinationals and their standardised products is leading to global cultural conformity. Other downfall factors also include misleading the public, low pay and against unions, exploiting indigenous people ; Also the mass production, packaging and transportation of huge quantities of goods is using up the world's resources faster than they can be renewed and filling the land, sea and air with dangerous pollution and waste.
H The Problem The Body Shop has used safe and timid advertising over the last decade, decreasing market share and brand value. With the rise of new, more natural and environmentally friendly competitors, The Body Shop can no longer stand behind being the greenest or most natural. The Solution The Body Shop is the originator of ethical beauty with our actions speaking louder than our words. This is the new direction of The Body Shop. We will be a part of different acts of kindness in big cities. We will eliminate unwanted graffiti, purify city air, and give the customer an opportunity to be a part of something good.
The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-H.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-H, in boxes 1-4 your answer sheet.
1 An action taken to Establishing social responsibility in conservation project
2 a description of the conventional way the ads applied to talk to its customers
3 A history of a humble origin and expansion
4 management practices arc intended to lined up the company's goal with participants' prosperity
Choose the three correct letter, A- F.
Write your answers in boxes 5-7 on your answer sheet.
5-7) What are true about the Ben & Jerry's company management
A There was little difference between the highest salary and the lowest
B They were advertising their product with powerful internal marketing.
C They offer the employee complimentary product
D Employee were encouraged to give services back to the community
E the products are designed for workers to barter for other goods and services
F offered a package of benefits for disable employees
Choose the three correct letter, A- F.
Write your answers in boxes 8-10 on your answer sheet.
What are the factors once contributed to the success for the BODY SHOP ?
A pioneering the natural-ingredient cosmetics market
B appealed to primary market mainly of the rich women
C focused on their lavish ads campaign
D The company avoided producing the traditional cosmetics products
E its moral concept that refuses to use animals- tested ingredients
F its monetary donations to the communities and in developing countries
Choose the three correct letter, A- F.
Write your answers in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet.
What arc the factors leading to the later failure for BODY SHOP company?
A its philosophy that there is real beauty in everyone is faulty
B fail to fulfill promises while acted like misleading the public
C faced growing competition
D its creating demand for something that the customers do not actually need
E its newer, fresher Brands are not successful in the Market
F fail to offer cosmetics at lower prices than competitors
结构 A段：Ben & Jerry为员工提供商品免费和折扣福利
B段：Ben & Jerry为员工提供带薪探亲假和股票购买优惠
C段：Ben & Jerry为员工提供的其他福利
D段：The Body Shop的发展历程和营销策略
E段：The Body Shop早期成功的秘诀
F段：The Body Shop为应对竞争，发起名为Ruby的运动
G段：The Body Shop衰落的因素
H段：The Body Shop存在的问题和解决方法
题目类型：LIST OF HEADINGS
题号 定位词 文中对应点 题目解析
1 Establishing social responsibilities E段第四句 E段第四句提到The company is know for… and establishing social responsibility as an integral part of company operations.
2 Ads, talk to customers F段第三句 F段第三句提到Ruby is…the cosmetic industry talks to women。此处的Ruby在前文中提到就是指The Body Shop的广告活动。
3 Origin and expansion D段第四句和第七句 D段整段都在介绍The Body Shop的起源和发展历程。第四句提到from her original shop，第七句提到an expansion campaign followed。
4 Link, company’s goal, participants’ prosperity B段最后一句 B段最后一句提到，these contributions are intended to achieve the company’s goal of linked prosperity。
5 Complimentary product A段第二句 A段第二句提到公司为员工每天提供三品脱免费的冰淇淋、果汁或冻酸奶，即every workers is entitled to three free pints of ice cream…。该句free与C选项中的complimentary都表示“免费”。
6 Internal marketing B段第一句 B段第一句提到…and may take advantage of the Employee Stock Purchase Program to purchase company stock at a 15% discount。此处说公司给予员工股票购买的优惠，即采取内部营销政策。
7 Disable employees C段第四句和第五句 C段列出了Ben & Jerry 给予员工的其他福利，其中第四条和第五条就是跟disable employee有关的福利措施。
Natural-ingredient E段第四句 E段第四句提到the company is known for pioneering the natural-ingredient cosmetic market and…。
9 Refuses, animals-tested ingredients D段第五句 D段第五句提到 her company’s refusal to test products on animals。
10 Monetary donations, communities, developing countries E段第五句 E段第五句提到The Body Shop is known for its ethical stances, such as its monetary donations to the communities in which it operates, and its business partnership with developing countries。
11 Promises, acted G段第四句 G段第四句提到，they are pleased by companies with green actions, not promises。
12 Growing competition G段第一句 G段第一句提到 The Competition … to product-savvy competitors that offered similar cosmetics at lower prices。
13 Creating demand, not actually need G段第六句 G段第六句提到，… often creating a demand for something where a real need for it does not exist。
该句的creating demand 和D选项的creating demand 直接对应，where a real need for it dose not exit对应D选项的not actually need。
也许Ben & Jerry和美体小铺给自己设定垄断性赚诚实的利润陷阱。但他们的斗争是我们知道“道德"营销的雷区的一课。美体小铺，连同美国冰淇淋制造商Ben and Jerry' s,被誉为新一代的具有绿色环保意识业务企业。
Ben and Jerry’s
A Ben&Jerry为员工提供了一个非常甜蜜的员工福利。首先，700家中每一个店铺Ben & Jerry 的工人每天工作时有权免费三品脱冰淇淋，雪糕或冷冻酸奶。(一些工人使用易货享受配额的免费治疗其他商品和服务，比如理发。)除了免费赠品，人员享受公司冷冻产品50%的折扣，其他商品40%的折扣,还有30%非Ben&Jerry食品公司奥特莱斯商品折扣。
B 工人们进一步享有带薪探亲假和可能利用员工股票购买计划在一个15%的折扣的价格购买公司股票(六个月组织后)。从1998年开始，授予每个工人(不包括董事及高级职员) 316股票期权和股票401 k计划的日历年度也分配给每个雇员。这些贡献旨在与实现公司的目标共同繁荣的，即确保所有员工共享繁荣的未来。
The Body Shop
D 美体小铺历史开始于安妮塔罗迪克的4000和一个梦想。如今，它在50个国家拥有超过1900家门店。美体小铺于1976年在英格兰布莱顿成立。从她原来的商店，它提供的25种不同乳液、面霜、和油脂，罗迪克成为第一个成功的身体护理产品，结合天然成分和ecologically-benign制造过程的营销人员。她的公司拒绝使用动物测试产品，以及一个坚持在世界各地的供应商中实施非劳动剥削的劳动实践，主要吸引的是中产阶级妇女特玥是高档家庭产品，—直是该公司的主要市场。销售蓬勃发展，甚至保守的金融市场都批准美体小铺的令人印象深刻的利润情况下的扩张活动，其在1984年公开发行股票是 成功的。1988年，公司进入美国市场在纽约开设商店：到1997年，该公司拥有1500家门店，包括在47个国家的特许经营，反营销策略似乎是聪明的营销，至少对美体小铺而言。
G 美体小铺在1990年底的竞争下，面对竞争对手以更低的价格提供类似的化妆品失去市场份额。主要竞争对手是H20，Sephora, Bath and Body Works, and Origins。 研究成果显示，女性欣赏美体小铺的道德标准。她们很高兴公司实际的绿色行动，而不是承诺。证据证明，美体小铺一直搁置在许多人的倡导思想，而不断推出更新的品牌。像美体小铺公司不断通过广告宣传他们的产品和营销，通常创建一个不存在的需求，不是一个真正需要的东西。传播的是通过购买越来越多的产品通往幸福的消息。这种消费主义下，跨国公司主导日益增加其标准化产品导致全球文化整合。其他垮台的因素还包括误导公众，低工资和反对工会，利用原住民，大规模生产，大量的商品包装和运输导致使用全球资源的速度加快。而土地，海洋和空气与危险的污染和浪费远超它们再生的速度。
1 E 2 F 3 D 4 B 5 C 6 D 7 F 8 A 9 E 10 F 11 B 12 C 13 D